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Treating obesity



TREATING OBESITY  

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Diet advice

A healthy diet should contain:
  • meals based on starchy, high-fibre carbohydrates, such as wholegrain bread, pasta and rice
  • at least five portions of fruit and vegetables every day
  • a moderate amount of low-fat protein, milk and dairy products
  • a very small amount of foods that are high in fat, sugar or salt
In order to lose weight, you need to eat a healthy diet and reduce the amount of calories in your diet. This will mean changing your eating habits. You need to do this a way that you find acceptable, and that you can maintain long-term (see tips for weight loss, in the box to the right).

Types of diet

Your GP may recommend a calorie-controlled diet. This will be based on how much you are currently eating, and then attempting to cut the amount of calories you eat every day by around 600. Alternatively, you may be advised to follow a low-fat diet. See diet for tips to cut down the amount of fat and sugar in your diet.
A calorie-controlled or low-fat diet should only be attempted with expert support and advice. You should also have a follow-up appointment with your GP to check your progress.
If you attempt a low-calorie diet (only 1,000-1,600 calories a day) without the advice of a health professional, you may miss out some of the vital nutrients you need to stay healthy.

Further information

There is much more information on losing weight in the Live Wellsection of the website. This section contains information on:

Children and diet


Children and diet


Children and diet


As children are still growing, they may need to follow a special kind of diet to make sure that they are still getting all the nutrients they need to develop healthily. If your child is overweight or obese, consult your GP before making any significant changes to their diet.

Increase your exercise

Research suggests that increasing the amount of exercise you do is an effective way to lose weight, and the results are even better when combined with changes to your diet.
The advice from your GP about exercise will vary depending on how fit you are to start with, and what it is safe for you to do. You should start by decreasing the amount of time you are physically inactive, such as how long you spend watching television or sitting at a computer.
You should then build up slowly to 30 minutes of moderate intensity exercise on at least five days of the week. Moderate intensity means that you are breathing slightly more than normal, but you can still comfortably talk as you exercise.
Your 30 minutes of exercise does not need to be completed in a single session. If you prefer, it can be split into three 10 minute sessions. When you are able to, you should consider extending the amount of exercise to 45 minutes, and then keep increasing this as your fitness level improves. 

Types of exercise

The most effective types of exercise are ‘aerobic’ activities. Aerobic activities are any kind of rhythmic, moderate intensity exercises that use the large muscles in your legs and buttocks. The exercise should raise your heart rate and make you breathe harder. 
Recommended types of physical exercise include:
  • activities that can be incorporate into everyday life, such as brisk walking, gardening, or cycling,
  • supervised exercise programmes, and
  • activities such as swimming, walking (where you aim to walk a certain number of steps a day), and stair climbing.

Children and exercise


Children and exercise


Children and exercise 

Children should be encouraged to do at least 60 minutes of moderate activity each day. The activity can be in one session, or several sessions that last 10 minutes, or more. As with adults, children who are overweight, or obese, may need to do more than 60 minutes of exercise. You should check with your GP before your child starts a new exercise programme.

Medication

Medication for obesity may be available from your GP in some cases. You need to show you can lose weight on a calorie controlled diet before it is considered. Medication is normally one part of a weight loss programme, and requires a long-term change in lifestyle for lasting results.
The only medication currently prescribed is orlistat. See the box to the left for information on sibutramine, which is no longer used due to safety concerns.

Orlistat

Ortlisat works by blocking the action of an enzyme (a protein that speeds-up and controls chemical reactions in the body) that is used to digest fat. The undigested fat is not absorbed into your body, and is passed out with your faeces (stools). As you are absorbing less fat, you should lose weight.
One orlistat capsule is taken with each main meal (a maximum of three capsules a day). You can take the capsule either before, during, or up to one hour after each meal.
If you miss a meal, or the meal does not contain any fat, you may not need to take the orlistat capsule. Your GP should explain this to you, or you can check the patient information leaflet that comes with your medication.
You have to have made significant effort to lose weight through diet, exercise or changing your lifestyle before taking orlistat. Even then, orlistat is only prescribed if you are on a low calorie diet and you have:

photo fun


photo fun

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How to protect your accounts

Online banking or internet banking has become part of our life. Are these internet banking transatctions secure?. How do we secure our internet banking accounts. What are the security measures we should take to protect our online banking accounts?. Find all the answers in this article.



Security hazards of online banking

Though internet banking enables the customers to perform various money transactions, it has its own security hazards. The customers who are using internet banking or performing online transactions need to have sufficient knowledge on the security hazards. There are many unscrupulous agencies which try to hack the account and swindle money. There are several instances reported where the accounts of people have been used by others without their knowledge.

How to make the online banking account more secure

The money in our account is hard earned and it is our duty to safeguard the money with sufficient security measures. Following are some of the tips which help the people to secure their online banking accounts:-

1. While accessing your account please go to the web site through the browser typing the domain name/URL

2. There are instances where people get mails purported to have been sent from your bankers asking you to update the information like login id , password , account number date of birth etc. This is totally bogus and no banks will ask for such information. The website clicked through such links resembles the bankers site but it will be a totally different domain and the information collected through such link will be misused.

3. Your login ID and password should be kept very secret. If you are accessing your online account from any public place like internet café or from a system being shared by others, make sure that you do not save the password in the system.

4. Create a very strong password consisting of alpha, numeric, special characters, capitals etc., Though it is difficult for the users to remember the password most importantly it would be very difficult for hackers to break the password.

5. Change the password of your internet banking frequently.

6. Use licensed antivirus in your system which will ensure protection from malwares and spywares.

7. Remember to logout your session soon after completion of you transaction and close the browser.

8. Check your account balance regularly for any illegal transactions.

9. If your bankers have provided the facility of virtual keyboard, please type your user id and password through virtual keyboard. Use of virtual key board provides protection from malwares and spywares.

10.The online banking has the option of stipulating the limit for transaction. Ensure small amount as a limit this will avoid larger losses in case of any misuse.

11. Activate your mobile number with the bankers for receiving SMS for any transaction in your account.

why E. coli bacteria are some so dangerous?


why  E. coli bacteria are some so dangerous? 
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Escherichia coli (E. coli) are members of a large group of bacterial germs that inhabit the intestinal tract of humans and other warm-blooded animals (mammals, birds). Newborns have a sterile alimentary tract, which within two days becomes colonized with E. coli. 

More than 700 serotypes of E. coli have been identified.  The “O” and “H” antigens on their bodies and flagella distinguish the different E. coli serotypes, respectively.  The E. coli serotypes that are responsible for the numerous reports of outbreaks traced to the consumption of contaminated foods and beverages are those that produce Shiga toxin (Stx), so called because the toxin is virtually identical to that produced by another bacteria known as Shigella dysenteria type 1 (that also causes bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome [HUS] in emerging countries like Bangladesh) (Griffin & Tauxe, 1991, p. 60, 73).  The best-known and most notorious Stx-producing E. coli is E. coli O157:H7.  It is important to remember that most kinds of E. coli bacteria do not cause disease in humans, indeed, some are beneficial, and some cause infections other than gastrointestinal infections, such urinary tract infections.  This section deals specifically with Stx-producing E. coli, including specifically E. coli O157:H7.

Shiga toxin is one of the most potent toxins known to man, so much so that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) lists it as a potential bioterrorist agent (CDC, n.d.).  It seems likely that DNA from Shiga toxin-producing Shigella bacteria was transferred by a bacteriophage (a virus that infects bacteria) to otherwise harmless E. coli bacteria, thereby providing them with the genetic material to produce Shiga toxin.

Although E. coli O157:H7 is responsible for the majority of human illnesses attributed to E. coli, there are additional Stx-producing E. coli (e.g., E. coli O121:H19) that can also cause hemorrhagic colitis and post-diarrheal hemolytic uremic syndrome (D+HUS).  HUS is a syndrome that is defined by the trilogy of hemolytic anemia (destruction of red blood cells), thrombocytopenia (low platelet count), and acute kidney failure.

Stx-producing E. coli organisms have several characteristics that make them so dangerous.  They are hardy organisms that can survive several weeks on surfaces such as counter tops, and up to a year in some materials like compost.  They have a very low infectious dose meaning that only a relatively small number of bacteria (fewer than 50) are needed “to set-up housekeeping” in a victim’s intestinal tract and cause infection.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that every year at least 2000 Americans are hospitalized, and about 60 die as a direct result of E. coli infection and its complications. A recent study estimated the annual cost ofE. coli O157:H7 illnesses to be $405 million (in 2003 dollars), which included $370 million for premature deaths, $30 million for medical care, and $5 million for lost productivity (Frenzen, Drake, and Angulo, 2005).

Effects of drugs, solutions to drug addiction and the reasons for drug addiction


Effects of drugs, solutions to drug addiction and the reasons for drug addiction
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There are various statistics relating to drug addiction and drug abuse among the youth. There are various reasons for drug addiction and why the young people take to drug? There are various physical and psychological effects of drugs. Drugs affect the mind and brain. However

Drugs-the two sided reality
Drugs may be broadly defined as the substances which by their chemical nature influence the structure of living cells. They are found in plants and in the concentrated extracts or chemical alterations of the extracts of the plants.
Drugs are powerful agents that either do harm or good. Under appropriate circumstances, they are beneficial but when used in a wrong way and in the wrong amounts, they kill or cripple or produce a most debilitating physical and psychological dependence on drugs. Most people tend to abuse the drugs due to their soothing, anesthetizing, stimulating and hallucinating properties.



Why people get addicted to drugs?
There are many reasons for drug addiction due to which one is not able to get out of the clutches of this monster.
Using drugs for 'kicks'

One reason why youngsters try drugs is simple as they are there. Unlike the average young person of fifty years ago, whose opportunities for drug addiction was limited to alcohol and tobacco, today's youth faces a wide variety of drugs from which to choose, both these sold in pharmacies and those available only in the streets. The young, being characteristically, curious are far more inclined than the most adults to take the risks. This is partly to prove their boldness and their sense of adventure, and partly because they do not believe, at least initially, that anything disastrous can happen to them. Thus for many adolescents, experimenting with drugs may take place simply out of curiosity, a sense of daring and opportunity.


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Peer group influences

Peer group influences the need to be accepted by a group of peers who are already involved with drugs is an important factor that make the people try drugs. This is all the more so if the young person's best friend is already involved in this drug taking.

Rebellion against parents

Many youngsters who have unloving, neglectful, overly permissive or in contrast, authoritarian and hostile parents take to drug as a form of rebellion. An angry young man said to his father, " He is always telling me what to do like I don;t have a mind of my own. And I like my father is sitting around and having his third martini before supper, telling me that he has some clever expert and I am a real idiot, about how marijuana shall destroy my brain. Well, to heel with him----".
Escape from the pressure of life

Drugs are seen by some people as a mean to escape the pressure of life or from boredom. The social structure that is deficient and unsatisfactory drives them to seek artificial paradises in the form of various drugs. The many shortcomings in the structure of society such as unemployment, lack of houses, social injustice, political opportunism and international instability inevitably causes a sense of loss of confidence that may sometimes lead to experiences that are frightfully negative.


Alienation and lack of motivation

In certain cases, drugs abuse reflects alienation, a profound rejection of the values of the society that some young people perceive as increasingly impersonal, often cruel and lacking in concern for the individual. This alienation from the society makes the young renounce the award of organized society and turn inwards to self-occupied world of mind altering drugs in order, mistakenly or not, to find a 'fuller meaning in life.'


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Effects of drug taking
Following are the effects of drugs un human body.
Tolerance

Tolerance is the physiological process that requires the individual to use more and more drugs in a repeated effort to produce the same effect. Tolerance is the characteristic of narcotic addiction. As the duration of the effect shrinks, in the first stage of the tolerance the individual is required to take the drugs either more often or in greater amounts to achieve the same objective. This stage is followed by the loss of effects. An individual can arrive t a very high level of tolerance with new level quickly reducing the effects.



How to overcome drug addiction?
Drugs that adversely affect the nervous system and those physical and psychological dependence are dangerous. Hence, the best advice to anyone is "Don't start".
Young people can save themselves from drug abuse and consequent addiction if they get proper orientation to their entire life. their lives must be given deeper and new meaning by commitment to true ideals. Pleasure, prosperity and comfort are not the values that can fill the human heart. Man needs higher values and a true companion all his life, it may be his wife or his friends. The modern world, is in fact in great need for friendship, ideals and love.And if young people learn to deal with the help of responsible, caring adults and succeed in establishing genuine relationships at home ad in the society, they shall realize that life is fun even without drugs.



Social and ethical issue of drug abuse
The increasing use of drugs in today;s society raises serious ethical and moral issues. The problem becomes especially complicated when one sees the seeming contradictions in society with regard to the use of drugs. The traditional ethics continue to demand harsh responses to the use of drugs. But at the same time, the quantity of drugs manufactured and their consumption by the general public is steadily on the rise.


Such a situation makes one to ask the following questions:

Can society succeed if the individuals are allowed unrestrained self-indulgence?

Is it right to rely on something so much that one cannot exist without it?

Is it right to dwell on one's own inner experience and glorify it at the expense of the necessary ordinary pursuits?

Does one have the absolute right to decide what one needs?

Does society have the right to punish addicts who do no visible harm either to themselves or to the society?


How to earn the love of others at the first meeting


You must have heard this famous English saying ‘ First impression is last impression’, which means when you meet some one for the first time, at that time the impression of the person you meet that forms in his mind about you, lasts for ever.

Keeping this thing in mind, the people often in the in would be in-law’s house or at the times of giving interviews, converse in a very measured and thoughtful manner, laugh very lightly, try to show themselves very civilized and then leave the places with the impression that all went very well and they have left a very nice imprints on the minds of peoples they have just left behind. But is that what happens really? This certainly is not the way to win peoples hearts

People can think they have impressed the persons in the front, but there cannot be a true idea of it. Most of the people are ignorant to what others think of them.

It is said that good or bad whatsoever impression that forms is formed during the period of 4 minutes. Nevertheless, only 10 seconds time is taken for the person in front of you to weigh you up or down.



Give importance to groups if you wish to win hearts

You become surprised to know that what an opinion a particular person keeps regarding you. But it’s less surprising to gauze what ideas people on general basis have regarding you. This could be understood clearly with an instance if you wish to win peoples hearts. When you meet several managers in group or separately for some job, the chances of self evaluation increase more. If you then feel that your performance in front of them have been well, then your work will be done.

Do the practice of the art of winning hearts

In order to make the first impression better, select such an area where you wish to concentrate- perhaps you will choose the area of more smiles or more interests compared to others. Test your strategy keeping yourself in similar situations where its results do not affect you much. Talk jovially with your ration dealer or cut jokes with the delivery boy who has come to deliver cylinders or simply smile at the vegetable vendor. Initiate the talks with the co- passenger sitting beside you in the bus. Talk more than what you generally do. Don’t think you are looking awkward doing this. Afterwards, think on your these actions pondering that what were the flaws in them and bring to use this experience in your next meet round if you want to win peoples hearts.

Understand what people really want to win their hearts

Generally people like such persons who listen to others, who are interesting and want to keep the balance in their talks. People think such sort of thoughts in their first meetings especially when going to meet a girl, “How am I going?” Do I like this really?” “What does she think of me?” These things are nevertheless important but we should also think of what to do to keep her in good humour, to make her happier. Keeping this thing in mind, you could make a helluva lot of impression. Though it might sound odd to you, but we are evaluated on the measure of the benefits we give to the people. Such things which make people feel happier makes there mood also better and unknowingly they treat that happiness as a gift from you. Your rating and demand in the society enhance higher. Isn’t this the best way of winning peoples hearts?

Take care of four things for winning hearts

When you are labouring under the efforts of making someone happy, four things need to be remembered. These four things are:
Lauding and praising of the individual in the front,
Developing a connection with him,
Making his mood,
Sharing news and knowledge with him.



To win hearts, give full attention

Pay attentions to it what type of response the person sitting in front is giving. Whether he is feeling bored with your ongoing verbal volleys at play for hours together or interrupts you in between putting questions after listening carefully giving you at the same times small big information? You should be on the look out for this.

Adopt a newer approach to win hearts

People always think that people will like him if they behave in a certain way. This wrong! There are not one but several techniques to approach peoples in order to win hearts. You should find out the approach which is simple for you. If you are talking with a fan of football or cricket, it is not necessary for you to prove yourself also as a football or a cricket lover. In stead, turn the topic of the talk towards something which he likes- for example, his profession or his children.


Make amends against mistakes to win over the broken hearts

If you feel you have acted wrongly with someone then give attention here on the points being told now:

Have second look over the experience got through this incidence of annoying the person you have wronged. If you think you were right and feel satisfied over the way you did act then come out of your dilemma/contradictions. One cannot keep everybody happy. I f someone doesn’t like your style, this means his personality does not match with yours’.
And if you are not going to meet the person again in future, there is no need to think much on your own behaviour.
But, yes, if that person happens to be working with you, your neighbour, or a special friend of your friend then probably it would be better to right your wrong done to him by begging for excuses which would be taken as a positive trait of your personality and you would certainly be forgiven and the incidence forgotten by the aggrieved party.


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Choose a right timing to win hearts

It is a very tiring feeling to be always thinking of the impression you are making on the people sitting in front of you. If you happen to be inside of your would be in-law’s house or in an interview for job, then it is okay, but behave normally for the rest of periods.

How first impression comes into play

We often say/listen that by the book of a cover it cannot be guesstimated how the book is about. But alas! In reality, we do act always like this. Researches tell that the generally the physically attractive peoples are taken to be more competent, more knowledgeable, and much trustworthy. In stead, most of the employers also think that if you know to value yourself you will naturally know to value your job too.
The interviewing panel, in the first round look at you with deep glance and the difficult part of this is that you do not get a second chance.

Your aim is to look better to others- your dress, your style, way of talking, and your look- everything should look attractive.

Going through thus, let’s come on to a newer saying, “There is no success greater than appearing to be successful”.

Some tips of great use for winning the hearts of the people

Below are some tips given to be taken advantages of:

Try to reach the venue of the interview 15 minutes ahead of times. Adjust your hair and dress in the wash room at the venue.
Do the relaxation exercise in the waiting hall for 10 minutes. Don’t get nervous. This exercise is not such that people would look at you with surprise. Rather nobody’s attention will be drawn to this.
Draw a deep breath from mouth and holding it, count up to 7.
Then slowly exhale your breathe.
Repeat this continuously- breathing in, breathing out.
Remember of a soothing and relaxing place for instance, a mountain scene and scenery at sunset.


Wear a dress which leaves impressions

Your looks always leave an influence. The need is to turn this influence to success. In studies, the connection of clothes has been attached to the increased sense of confidence and job satisfaction. This helps in making a professional image. Forget the point of personal style. You need to choose dress for the job you want to get and nit fir the job you are already doing. Your dress should pass over through three litmus tests:

According to the mood of the company,
In accordance with the mood of the client,
According to the taste of the department.


If you are to go for a company about which you know nothing from before, then try to go through the photos printed in the annual report of that company and look for the type of dresses people in the photo are wearing and then wear accordingly before appearing at the company’s interview board. Or make a round of the company before going for the interview.

Take the correct steps

The attention of the interviewing people will fall first of all upon your body language. In one famous study of the psychologist, Albert Mehrabian, it has been found that 7% of our thought and behaviour get revealed by our spoken words, 38% by our voice, and 55% by our facial expressions. In order to make the first meeting effective, the beginning should be made by a genuine smile and a warm handshake.

Keep the expression of your face normal. A heartless and a forced smile will make your persona weaker. Talking by locking up the eyes of the persons you are talking to is considered to be a plus point. If there are several people interviewing, your eyes should always be roving in contacts with the eyes of each and every interviewing persons. Only thieves avert eyes while being questioned by the police….

Selecting appropriate words: Do speak those words only that match to your body language and personality. Not doing so might confuse your interviewer.

Conclusion: There should be full restfulness, confidence, relaxation and normalcy in you while conversing. Nothing should be artificial. This, you could practice with audio/video and rehearsing.

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